Brown: Chapter 14 Questions
Explain the relationship between input and intake.
everything learner is exposed to, all
input processed by the brain into usable
information shown by increased competence;
comes about by conscious and subconscious
attention to input, through cognitive
strategies of retention, through feedback,
and through interaction (p. 234)
An important factor in listening is schemata. What is schemata?
How does a "hearer" determine the function of an utterance?
by considering the type of speech event,
the context, and the content.
What are the factors that make listening difficult for L2 learner?
3. reduced forms
4. performance variables
5. colloquial language
6. rate of delivery
7. stress, rhythm, intonation
How does redundancy help a listener in comprehending the speaker?
by offering more time and extra information
What kind of reduced forms are possible in spoken language? Give an example of each.
1. phonological "Djeetyet?" Did you eat yet?
2. morphological "I will ---- I'll" contractions
3. pragmatic "Mom! Phone!"
List 5 microskills that are required for effective interactive listening strategies suggested by Jack Richards.
1. retain chunks of language of different
lengths in short-term memory
2. process speech as different rates of delivery
3. infer situations, participants, goals
using real world knowledge
4. use facial, kinesic, "body language"
& other nonverbal clues to decipher meanings
5. recognize cohesive device in spoken discourse
As a teacher what clues can you give to your students to develop listening strategies?
1. look for keywords
2. look for non-verbal clues
3. predict meaning through context
4. associate meaning with existing
6. ask for clarification
7. getting the general gist
What is the difference between bottom-up and top-down processing for listening?
focus on sounds, words, intonation,
grammatical structures, and other
components of spoken language
focus on schemata activation,
deriving meaning, global
understanding, and text interpretation
What are the aural skills needed for less interactive forms of discourse such as academic lectures and other monologues?
1. identify structure of lecture
2. determine what is relevant and germane
3. detect possible biases of speaker
4. critically evaluate speaker's assertions
5. develop means of retaining the content
Why is it important to make dialogs "episodic"?
draws the interest of the reader;
gives a sense of excitement, of "what
Name some classroom listening performance types.
when you want a learner to listen to the
surface structure of an utterance.
purpose to focus on components (phonemes,
words, intonation, etc.)
teacher language designed to elicit
monologues where the student has to scan
for important or certain information.
develop a global understanding of spoken
include all of the above.
For example: debate, discussion.
Time & Place
Textbook & Materials
Major Learning Activities
Course Requirements & Grading Scheme
Students with Disabilities
Dr. Lynn E. Henrichsen
Department of Linguistics
Brigham Young University
Last Updated: Saturday, January 24, 1998