Chapter 2 Questions
Grammatical competence is one important component of communicative competence, what are some other components that may often be neglected?
1. Functional Pragmatic
2. Sociolinguistic Pragmatic
What practices should we avoid if we desire to promote meaningful learning in our classrooms?
1. too much emphasis on grammar
2. too much abstract theories
3. too much drilling or memorization
4. activities that have unclear purposes
5. activities that are not relevant to
the lesson objective
6. risky or complicated techniques or
ones that cause the student to focus
on mechanics rather than meanings (p.18)
What is the most powerful reward in second language acquisition and why?
Intrinsic rewards are the most
important because every behavior is
motivated by needs or wants.
What is the downside of using rewards in class?
a.Students become too dependent on
rewards, looking for outside rewards.
b.Sincerity of giver sometimes questioned.
c.forestall development of internally
administered system of rewards
d.If you forget or don't do it every
time, students might feel bad. (p.19)
What are some effects that the native language exercises on the target language?
Interfering effects are the most salient
and observable, and facilitating effects
are powerful in process, or more so,
but less observable. (Brown p. 26, 27)
What is the importance of acculturation in language acquisition?
Often students lose identity when learning
L2. It is important to make an identity
for self along with the acquisition of L2.
Also it aids in the better learning of the L2
because of acceptance of the people in the L2.
What do the teachers make for every tiny moment of the classroom hour and what can they be justified by?
Choices, that can be justified for
the most part by our collective
knowledge of second language acquisition
What can a teacher do to help encourage his or her students to take risks in learning language?
a.Create an atmosphere conducive to risk-taking
by encouraging students to try out language.
b.Make tasks reasonably challenging but doable.
c.Help students understand the difference
between calculated and random risk-taking.
d.Return student attempts with praise and affirmation.
e.Practice and teach risk-taking.
How does the intrinsic motivation principle relate to the principle of anticipation of reward?
The anticipation of reward principle states
that people learn when they are rewarded.
The intrinsic motivation principle states
that some people do well on their own
because their own reasons for learning
are motivation enough.
What is meaningful learning?
This helps students retain the new
material in their long-term memory as they
learn the different concepts in context
of things familiar to them. Lessons
should be centered on things students
will use in everyday living, and not
focus too much on the mechanics of language.
Explain the difference between meaningful learning and rote learning.
Meaningful learning helps create connections
between new and previous information,
inserting new knowledge into already
established and working systems. Rote
learning takes isolated bits of information
and places them randomly into the students'
information system. Meaningful learning
by its inherent worth in more effective
in long-term retention. (p. 18)
What are the significances and components of communicative competence in language teaching? How to achieve communicative competence in the classroom?
How do principles, choices, and teaching relate?
By perceiving & internalizing connections
between practice (choices you make in
classroom) & theory (principles derived
from research), your teaching is likely
to be "enlightened". You will be better
to see why you have chosen to use a
particular classroom technique (or set of
techniques) to carry it out with confidence
& evaluate its utility after the fact.
What does Brown mean by "enlightened teaching"?
Willingness to go with the flow of a
lesson, as opposed to rigid adherence
to ritual (teaching by recipe) p. 13
What are typical characteristics of "master" ESL teachers?
What are the advantages of encouraging students to attempt definitions when dealing with vocabulary?
Because communication is very important
in language learning, students should
have the chance to talk with other
students & teacher. If they tried to
explain words, they could remember the
words better & teacher would know the
words students are unfamiliar with.
What productive suggestions could you give to students to help "coax" them to think directly in English?
1. meaningful input: conversations with native speakers
2. practice while walking, working, anything
How important is the language ego principle?
Learning a language puts you in a vulnerable
position. It is important as a teacher to
treat learners with affection and love,
creating an atmosphere of safety.
What is the principle of automaticity?
Efficient L2 learning involves a timely
movement of the control of a few language
forms into the automatic processing of a
relatively unlimited number of language
forms. Over analyzing language, thinking
too much about its forms, and consciously
lingering on rules of language all tend to
impede this graduation to automaticity. p.17
If a student is experiencing depression or discouragement, how would this be manifest in the student's performance in class?
1. feelings of sadness and/or irritability
2. loss of interest or pleasure in
activities once enjoyed
3. feelings of guilt, hopelessness
4. inability to concentrate, remember
things or make decisions
5. fatigue or loss of energy
6. restlessness or decreased activity
7. feelings or expressions of suicide
8. changes in appearance, weight, etc.
Why do children learn quicker than adults?
2. They never practice, just deal in real life.
3. They get support from parents
4. They aren't not self-conscious;
don't get embarrassed
5. They are spontaneous and risk takers
6. They don't experience the native
What are the positive and negative aspects of the anticipation of reward principle?
a.helps students feel they are accomplishing something
b.helps them work on and reach goals
a.leads learners to become dependent on rewards
2. coaxes students into a habit of looking to
teachers and others for their only reward
What are the positive results of "risk taking"atmosphere in the classroom?
Risk taking is an effort to extend ones
learning. It helps to develop the "ego" to
experiment and "try" offering the
student much more practice and experience
with the new language than otherwise.(p.24)
How do you effectively respond to counteract a class which is not intrinsically motivated? (Like jr. high school age children in a "forced"environment)
a.Short-term reminders of progress
(Anticipation of reward)
b.display enthusiasm and excitement in the classroom
c.help learners see long-term rewards by pointing
out career possibilities / requirements
Teachers should not discourage their students by correcting errors too often. However, we need to correct them. So when do teachers need to correct or not to correct errors?
Not every question should be corrected.
You have to think about what is focused
and how not to let students down.
Time & Place
Textbook & Materials
Major Learning Activities
Course Requirements & Grading Scheme
Students with Disabilities
Dr. Lynn E. Henrichsen
Department of Linguistics
Brigham Young University
Last Updated: Saturday, January 24, 1998