Brown: Chapter 4 Questions
What language-learning method was created as a result of WWII and what was its focus?
The Army Method which became know in the 1950's as
the Audiolingual Method. Its focus was aural / oral
skill - many pronunciation drills and conversational
practice with almost no grammar or translation.
What is an added connotation to the term "cooperative"in Cooperative Learning?
What is the definition of Natural Approach?
Natural Approach doesn't encourage student to
speak until ready.
- aimed at personal communication skills
- not much error correction
What is the difference between method and technique?
Although both are utilized as tools for realizing lesson
objectives, a method is a "generalized set of classroom
specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives ..."
and techniques are "any wide variety of exercises, activities,
or devices used in the language classroom" (p. 51).
What makes method and syllabus different?
Methods tend to be primarily concerned with teacher and
student roles and behaviors; whereas syllabus includes a
primary concern with the specification of linguistic and
subject-matter objectives, sequencing, and materials.
What are the major characteristics of Grammar-Translation?
1. classes are taught in the mother tongue, with
little active use of the target language
2. much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists
of isolated words
3. long elaborate explanations of the intricacies
of grammar are given (p. 53)
List three "designer" methods of the 70s for teaching languages, and describe the benefits for each method.
1. CLL: beneficial to educators because it helps
eliminate threatening affective factors associated
with language acquisition
2. Silent Way: encourages learning through
3. Natural Approach: early phase of acquisition
allow for comprehensive learning without
Name the advantages and disadvantages of CLL.
1. remove the feeling of alienation and inadequacy
2. counselor allows the learner to determine the type
of conversation and to analyze the foreign
1. counselor/teacher can become too indirective
2. its reliance upon an inductive strategy for learning
What two insight did the Silent Way give to the teaching profession? Why is it called the Silent Way?
1. often teachers need to be less-intrusive and
let students find their own answers
2. teacher acted as a "stimulator" not a "hand-holder.
Because the teacher was silent much of the time.
Teachers had to resist their instinct to come to
the aid of students at the slightest downfall and
they had to get out of the way while students
worked out solutions.
What is the main problem to apply Suggestopedia?
Music and comfortable chairs are not available
in most classrooms. It uses also a lot of
memorization and is not devoted to a more
comprehensive language acquisition.
Name at least four principles of the Direct Method.
1. instruction exclusive in the language
2. only every day vocabulary and sentences taught
3. oral communication built in careful graded
progression organized around question and answer
exchanges between teacher and students
4. grammar taught inductively
5. new material taught through modeling and practice
6. vocabulary through realia and association
7. speech and listening comprehension taught
8. correct pronunciation and grammar emphasized
Which of these principles carried into the Audiolingual Method?
Use target language in teaching, avoid grammar
explanations, taught vocabulary in context, use
dialogues to present new material, and emphasized
correct grammar and pronunciation.
What role did the Notional-Functional Syllabuses (NFS) play in the development of language teaching methodology?
With the emergence of NFS, language teaching curriculum
began to shift the focus from sequential grammatical
structures to the functional purposes of language. This
change in focus laid the foundation for the development
of today's communicative language approach. By
attending to the functional purposes of language and
providing a context for the realization of these purposes,
NFS served as a link between the methods of the past and
the new era of language teaching.
What is a Notional-Functional syllabus?
Developed as a reaction to grammatical syllabuses,
notional-functional syllabuses focus on the pragmatic
purposes of language and activities based upon
practical progress of speaking and communicating.
The structure of the syllabus is based on
communicative activities rather than grammar principles.
Who was the man who had the bad year in Germany trying to teach himself the language and then had a young nephew flaunt language acquisition in his face?
What do the terms approach, design, method, and procedure refer to? How do they relate to each other?
Approach: it defines the assumptions, beliefs, and
theories about the nature of language and language learning.
Method: an overall plan for systematic presentation of
language based upon a selected approach.
Design: specifies the relationship of language learning
theories to classroom materials and activities.
Procedure: the technique(s) and practice(s) that are
derived from one's approach and design
Relationship: Approach -> Design - > Practice(s)
Describe some of the features of the "designer methods."
Relaxed atmosphere, less teacher information, more
psychological and affective methods, discovery
Why is it important to know everything they did wrong in the past and rehash everything that didn't work?
May be so we don't repeat history and also to
absorb and use what did work in our own classroom.
Time & Place
Textbook & Materials
Major Learning Activities
Course Requirements & Grading Scheme
Students with Disabilities
Dr. Lynn E. Henrichsen
Department of Linguistics
Brigham Young University
Last Updated: Saturday, January 24, 1998