Brown: Chapter 5 Questions
What are the two things you should be cautious of doing if you accept the CLT approach?
1. Giving lip service to the CLT principles without
grounding your teaching techniques in such principles.
2. Overdoing certain CLT features.
What are the 5 features characterizing CLT?
• Emphasis on learning to communicate through
interaction in target language.
• Introduction of authentic texts into learning situation.
• Opportunities for learners to focus on learning
• Enhancement of learner's personal experiences as
contributing elements to classroom learning.
• Link classroom language learning with language
activation outside the classroom.(Brown p. 78)
Discuss five ways CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) improved upon principles of the ALM (Audiolingual Method). Why do you consider these improvement?.
In general, CLT moved language teaching and learning
into a more practical form by providing principles
based on learning to really communicate in natural
settings in English. Everything seems to be based on
long-term meaning learning. Flexibility is also
stressed and different learner learning styles.
(See Table 5.1)
What aspects are Whole Language Education based on initially?
• The wholeness of language.
• The interaction and interconnections between
oral language (listening and speaking) and written
language (reading and writing).
• Importance of the written code as natural and
developmental as the oral code.
Why should we not pick just one approach to language learning?
What is the key to "dynamic" teaching?
Interaction between a teacher's approach (or assumptions
about language and language learning) and his/her
classroom practice. (Teachers must really understand what
they believe about language and language learning and be
able to apply beliefs in classroom)
What are some of the important and techniques in learner-centered teaching?
1. techniques that focus on or account for
learners' needs, styles, and goals
2. techniques that give some control to the
student (ex: group work or strategy training)
3. curricula that includes the consultation
and input of students and that do not presuppose
objectives in advance
4. techniques that allow for student creativity
5. techniques that enhance a students' sense
of competence and self-worth
Why is it important to have a "cooperative learning" atmosphere in the classroom?
If competition is so high the students will not
work together as a "team" to achieve their goals
What type of activities would a teacher employ under the concept of interactive learning?
1. significant pair/group work
2. receiving authentic language inputs in
3. produce meaningful communication
4. tasks that prepare for real situations
5. spontaneous oral communication
6. writing to/for real audiences
Name 5 goals of communicative language teaching theory.
1. meaning is paramount
2. dialogues, if used, center around communicative
functions and aren't normally memorized
3. comprehensible pronunciation is sought
4. reading and writing can start from the
first day, if desired
5. communicative competence is the goal
What is the relationship between task and approach from a CLT perspective?
Tasks: practical application of an approach
and should be "a reflection of that approach."
Use five guidelines to ensure that the tasks
used to teach language are in harmony with
CLT approach (p. 83)
How would an advocate of CLT view translation in the classroom?
It's okay to use when students need it,
or benefit from it.
What is CLT's attitude toward grammatical explanation?
Any device which helps learners is accepted -
varying according to their ages, interests, etc.
Which is better: "strong" or "weak" version of CLT? Why?
"weak": healthy application of CLT principles
require moderation and common sense to the
advantage of facilitating elements in the
Name 3 contrasting points between the Audiolingual Method and Communicative Language Teaching.
1. Translation is forbidden at early levels.
2. Linguistic competence is the desired goal.
3. Accuracy is a primary goal.
1. Translation may be used where students
need or benefit from it.
2. Communicative competence is the goal.
3. Fluency is the primary goal.
What is the currently recognized approach in language teaching, and how does it differ from earlier approaches?
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) attempts
to help learners develop fluency, not just
Give brief definitions / descriptions of the following:
a. learner centered teaching
b. cooperative learning
c. interactive learning
d. whole language education
e. content centered education
f. task-based learning
1. Learner centered teaching:
Learning focuses on learners' needs, styles
and goals. Students have some control in the
classroom. Students can give input and use own
2. Cooperative Learning:
Student's work together as a team, sharing
information and helping each other. Students
and teachers work together too.
3. Interactive Learning:
Give genuine opportunities to interact and
communicate in class. Students and teacher give
and take as communicate. Use of authentic
4. Whole Language Education:
Involves the interrelationship of the 4 skill
areas; learning whole chunks of language rather
than breaking down into pieces. Has come to
encompass more than should.
5. Content Centered Education:
The concurrent study of language and subject
matter where content material dictates language
6. Task-based Learning:
The learning process is viewed as a set of
communicative tasks that are directly linked
to the curricular goals they serve.
Time & Place
Textbook & Materials
Major Learning Activities
Course Requirements & Grading Scheme
Students with Disabilities
Dr. Lynn E. Henrichsen
Department of Linguistics
Brigham Young University
Last Updated: Saturday, January 24, 1998