Brown: Chapter 9 Questions
What are the five synonyms of technique and what do they mean exactly?
• Practice, behavior, exercise, strategy
(See page 136 - 137)
What are the differences between controlled and free techniques?
Manipulative / mechanical / controlled:
• teacher centered
• predicted student responses
• pre-planned responses
• set curriculum
• unpredicted responses
• negotiated objectives
• cooperative curriculum
How important is textbook selection for ESL teachers?
The teacher's first concern is not to choose a
textbook but use the textbook handed to her
creatively. Many times one must accept the one
given to her. Using the teacher's edition is
very helpful. Hopefully, a good text will have
simple explanations, activities for each lesson.
Texts that have a workbook can also be very
helpful. Since the text is usually the primary
tool for ESL students, it should be selected
Is it good to spend a class hour drilling? Why?
No, drilling techniques are good in moderation.
A few short, snappy drills here and there can be
good in helping students to establish structural
patterns, rhythm, and pronunciation, but there is
nothing deadlier than a class hour filled with
What are the two major categories of design and implementation of techniques in the classroom?
1. Principle of teaching - knowing how they learn
2. Contexts of learning - knowing students
What does the superordinate term 'technique' refer to?
1. various activities in the classroom (either
teacher or student performed)
2. includes all tasks and activities
3. almost always planned and deliberate
4. product of choice made by teacher
What is the difference in categories of techniques contrasting manipulation to communication with controlled to free techniques?
• Manipulation to communication techniques
contrast the controlled activity with a
predictable response to those more communicative;
the students' responses are more open ended or
• Controlled to free techniques don't have a
clearly defined line between them; they are more
overlapping. However, controlled involves
teacher-centered, manipulative, structured,
planned objectives to a set curriculum whereas
free is more student-centered, negotiated, unpredictable.
How does the manipulation-communication scale impact teaching at the beginning level?
The manipulation-communication scale doesn't
correspond with the beginning-advanced
proficiency scale. Beginning students benefit
from communication techniques if limited
amounts of the language are used at the
students' proficiency level. Beginners need
to have small chunks of language in order to
deal with and build in some repetition of
patterns for establishing fluency.
What is a drill?
Technique that focuses on a minimal number (1-2)
of language forms (grammatical or phonological
structure) through some type of repetition
What is a "quasi-communicative practice/drill"?
controlled practices/drills that provide the
students with set questions but allow each
student to venture out of the mold if they wish
Describe the difference between mechanical, meaningful and communicative drills. What is the value of each?
What is a task?
specialized form of technique (or series
of techniques) closely related to a communicative
curricula that focus on authentic use of
language for meaningful communicative purposes
What is the role of materials in the classroom?
to support & enhance teaching techniques;
to make the lesson more "real"; to give
depth and richness to the activities and
instruction; tools to help teachers be more
effective in their techniques
What is realia?
objects used to teach in the classroom to
add a dimension of reality
What kind of supporting material can you use/find for your classes?
textbooks, other written texts, audio-visual
aids either produced or created by you,
realia, CALL (computer assisted language
Why is it important to adapt teaching materials to each individual class?
Materials must be appropriately geared for
the particular students: their level,
abilities, and goals; and must be right
for the time allotted in class.
What is the difference between text and a textbook?
Text can be either written or spoken. It
can be made up of a variety of genres.
A textbook is a specific type of text.
Identify 3 activities or techniques that would fall along the continuum of manipulative to communicative techniques.
Should we (as teachers) assume that manipulative / communicative continuum corresponds to the beginning / advanced proficiency continuum?
No, students can or should begin
communicative on the first day of
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the technique "Dialogue / narrative recitation"?
Memorizing learned chunks of language helps
students remember it longer, learn grammar,
better retain vocabulary etc.
If teacher is grading it, be careful to only
grade the actual language and not fluency,
pauses, etc. because otherwise you're
grading their memorization ability rather
than their language skills. It's not valid.
Time & Place
Textbook & Materials
Major Learning Activities
Course Requirements & Grading Scheme
Students with Disabilities
Dr. Lynn E. Henrichsen
Department of Linguistics
Brigham Young University
Last Updated: Saturday, January 24, 1998