TIGHTENING YOUR APA STYLE

APA REFERENCE STYLE: ERIC Documents

Citation Style: Chapters Citation Style: Internet Docs

ERIC documents are published on microfiche by the Educational Resources Information Center, a department of the National Institute of Education. Research works available in ERIC microfiche collections are generally not published elsewhere-this makes the ERIC document service invaluable for education researchers.

It's important to note that most ERIC indexes include two different kinds of citations: EJ sources and ED sources. EJ sources are journal articles which relate to the field of education. These articles are not included ERIC microfiche collections because they have already been published by a particular academic journal. ED sources, on the other hand, are found in full text form in your library's microfiche drawers. To locate an ED source, note the six-digit number that follows the ED in the index you are using. ERIC documents are filed according to this number, from low to high, 000 001 to 999 999, in the microfiche collection. Don't be afraid to ask a reference librarian for help locating a particular ERIC document.

NECESSARY INFORMATION AND WHERE TO FIND IT:

Author(s) of document is printed in the title lines of the document's microfiche. If you're not sure which person, persons, or entity authored the document, place the microfiche in a reader machine and check the document's title page
Year of publication is always printed in the title lines of the document's microfiche, in abbreviated form (i.e., without the "19"), before the number specifying the number of pages in the document
Title of document is the first element printed in the title lines of the microfiche. Again, if you're unsure about the document's title, put the microfiche in a reader machine and check the document's title page
Report number (if any) can be found in the title lines of the document's microfiche
Place of publication is printed in the title lines of the document's microfiche
Sponsoring entity is printed in the title lines of the document's microfiche
ERIC document number can be found at the top, left corner of the microfiche


CITATION ELEMENTS

AUTHOR(S) OF DOCUMENT
      If the author or authors are individuals, put each author's last name, then a comma, then the first initial of the first name, then any additional initials. A period should follow each initial. Separate the last author from the second-to-last author with a comma and ampersand (&). Separate any additional authors by commas. If the listed author is a group or institution, include the group or institution's full name. In the case of institutional authorship, add a period to end the section; for individual authors, no extra period is needed-the period after the final initial is sufficient.

One authorVickers, P. R.
Two authorsCastellanos, J., & Dewar, R. A.
Three authorsAndosca, B., Reinboldt, M. W., & Edie, L. E.
Institutional authorNebraska Clearinghouse for Pig Latin Teaching.

YEAR OF PUBLICATION
      Include the year the document was put out by the ERIC document service, in parenthesis, then end with a period. Do not use abbreviated dates (e.g. "91" or "84").

Standard form(1992).

(1987).

TITLE OF DOCUMENT
      Give the full title of the document, including the subtitle if one is given. Capitalize only the first word of the title, and the first word of any subtitle; also capitalize any proper names in the title. Separate title and subtitle with a colon (:). Underline the title and subtitle. No period goes after the title of the edited book; the report number (in parentheses) directly follows the title.

Standard formCase studies in Pig Latin attrition (Report No. ZYXPDQ-99-1).
Title and subtitleWhy Johnny can't eak-spay: Research into PL-specific aphasia (Report No. ABC-123).

REPORT NUMBER (IF ANY)
      The ERIC document's report number is placed within parentheses, directly after the document's title, and followed by a period. Neither the parenthetical information, the space that precedes it, nor the period that follows it are underlined.

Standard formDocument title (Report No. 267A).

Document title (Report No. ARST-12-M24).

PLACE OF PUBLICATION
      If the ERIC docuemnt's place of publication is an American city or town, include the city and state postal abbreviation, separated by a comma. For places of publication outside the United States, include the city and country, separated by a comma. Follow each type of location with a colon.

American locationSuperior Bottom, WV:
Other locationsFukuchiama, Japan:

Massangena, Mozambique:

SPONSORING ENTITY
      Completely spell out the names of institutions, agencies, and corporations. Follow the sponsor's name with a period.

Government agencyIllinois State Association for Educational Leadership.
CorporationAT&T Pig Latin Translation Center.
Other institutionNational Geographic Committee on Pig Latin Awareness.

ERIC DOCUMENT NUMBER
      If you have an ERIC microfiche in your hand, you already know about the ERIC document number, because you had to know it in order to find the fiche in the first place. This number contains six digits, in two sets of three. It goes after period which follows the sponsoring agency's name, in parenthesis, in the formula "(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED XXX XXX)". No punctuation goes after the final parenthesis.

Standard form(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 123 456)


CITATION FORMATS:

      Author, A. A. (1996). Title of ERIC document (Report No. AB-12). City, ST: Sponsoring Entity. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 123 456)

      Institutional Author. (1996). Title of ERIC document (Report No. AB-12). City, Country: Sponsoring Entity. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 123 456)


EXAMPLE CITATIONS:

ERIC Example 1

Citation:      Badden, M. R. (1992). A revised syllabus for Pig Latin in public schools (Report No. BZ4X). Mudsock, OH: Ohio State Association for Excellence in Pig Latin Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 678 342)


ERIC Example 2

Citation:      Headmaster's Committee on the Language Arts Curriculum. (1995). Pig Latin encounters: Exposing primary-age students to authentic models of production (Report No. FH-457). Orange Walk, Belize: Orange Walk Board of Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 589 244)


Citation Style: Chapters Citation Style: Internet Docs

Table of Contents
Citation Style: Books
List of Citation Formats
Introduction
Citation Style: Chapters
Citation Practice 1
Kinds of Sources
Citation Style: ERIC Docs
Citation Practice 2
Basic Formatting
Citation Style: Internet Docs
Further Information
Citation Style: Unpublished Sources
Citation Style: Conference Papers
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