TIGHTENING YOUR APA STYLE
CITATION PRACTICE 2: ANSWERS

Citation 1: (book)
      Caldwell, Martin, & Briggs, Emily S. (1993). Appreciating the importance of proper articulation in Pig Latin multimedia materials. Ajo, AZ: Ajo University Press.

Incorrect Citation: The problem here is with the author information. To cite authors, provide the last name in full and only the initials of the first name and any additional names.

The author slot for this citation should be:

Caldwell, M., & Briggs, E. S.


Citation 2: (ERIC document)
      Subcommittee on Pig Latin Issues. (1996). Pig Latin in Ireland: Past, present, and future (Report No. 777-62). Dublin, Ireland: Dublin Committee on Foreign Language Development. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 846 963)

Correct Citation.


Citation 3: (journal article)
      Duckworth, V. L. (1978). A series of checklists for evaluating Pig Latin performance. Logical Form in Education, 9, 110-115.

Incorrect Citation: In APA style, capitalize only the first word and any other words (such as names of people, places, and languages) which are necessarily captalized.

The journal title in this citation should be written in the following way:

Logical form in education,


Citation 4: (book)
      Pig Latin pronunciation in North and South Korea. By Hong, J., & Leung, M. X. Seoul, Korea: Korean Association of Language Educators, 1994.

Incorrect Citation: Elements in this citation are out of order. The authors, "Hong, J., & Leung, M. X.", should go first (without the "By"); the date should come next; the book title would be the third element.

This citation should be:

      Hong, J., & Leung, M. X. 1994. Pig Latin pronunciation in North and South Korea. Seoul, Korea: Korean Association of Language Educators.


Citation 5: (ERIC document)
      Goldman, W. (1996). A screenwriter's guide to Pig Latin orthography (Report No. 7746.2) Hollywood, CA: Screen Actors' Guild Committee on Pig Latin in the Cinema. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 456 951)

Incorrect Citation: For this citation to be correct, there needs to be a period after the second set of parentheses (between the report number and the place of publication).


Citation 6: (Internet resource)
      Lerner, K. L., University of Northern Nevada (n.d.). Pig Latin resources on the World Wide Web [WWW page]. URL http://www.unn.edu/humanities/porkfinds.html

Incorrect Citation: This citation includes the author's institutional affiliation, which is not a necessary element for APA style.

This citation should be:

      Lerner, K. L. (n.d.). Pig Latin resources on the World Wide Web [WWW page]. URL http://www.unn.edu/humanities/porkfinds.html


Citation 7: (journal article)
      Jesperson, R., & Shaw, U. P. (1995). Anticipatory stress in Pig Latin phonetics: Overexplaining the obvious. Pig Latin colloquium, 3, 89-113.

Correct Citation.


Citation 8: (journal article)
      Eisenstein, Y., Shomking, L., & Hennys, L. E. (1992). Schema-building in the Pig Latin classroom: Re-creating the world. Pig ped: Pig Latin teaching, 26 (2), 34-56.

Incorrect Citation: For journal articles, underlining begins with the title of the journal and ends with the volume number.

The title/volume/issue number slot for this citation should be done in the following way:

Pig ped: Pig Latin teaching, 26 (2),


Citation 9: (book)
      Unwin, R., & Pinkersh, E. D. (1996). Mistakes and errors: Paying the price of an effective Pig Latin education. Bristol, England: Tyrth and Sons. £12.50.

Incorrect Citation: It is not necessary to include the price of a book. The price should be deleted from this citation.


Citation 10: (ERIC document)
      Eeyore, Dennis. (1997). Making children's classics available in Pig Latin (Report No. 7654-A). Baltimore, MD: Maryland Council on Children's Literature. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 563 779)

Incorrect Citation: To cite authors in APA style, provide the last name in full and only the initials of the first name and any additional names.

The author slot for this citation should be:

Eeyore, D.


Citation 11: (book)
      Grendel, B. W. (1905). A Brief Introduction to Pig Latin Philology. New York: Hrothgar House.

Incorrect Citation: It is not necessary to capitalize all words in any title in APA style. Capitalize only the first word of title, along with any other obligatory capitalizations (such as for names of people, places, and languages).

The article title for this citation should be:

A brief introduction to Pig Latin philology.


Citation 12: (journal article)
      Gruber, J. M. (1983). "Understanding the Pig Latin/Pig Pidgin continuum." Language learning, 2, 244-306.

Incorrect Citation: The title of this article is enclosed in quotation marks. Though this is standard procedure with certain stylesheets, it is not necessary in APA style. The quotation marks should be deleted from the citation.


Citation 13: (Internet resource)
      Glet, P. I. (1997). Communication games for the public school Pig Latin classroom. Pig Latin E-Newsletter [On-line serial], 6. Available E-mail: plen@ubds.edu Message: get PLEN

Correct Citation.


Citation 14: (book)
      Bates, M., Eponymus, N. N., & Quincy, T. C. (1988). A dynamic model of Pig Latin evolution. Toronto, Canada: Libraphobe

Incorrect Citation: For this citation to be correct, there needs to be a period at the very end of the citation, after the name of the publisher ("Libraphobe").


Citation 15: (book)
      Fernandez, S. J., & Garcia, O. P. (1979). Pig Latin in the Yucatan: Creating connections between cultures. Mexico City, Mexico: Mayan Research Institute. 276 pp.

Incorrect Citation: It is not necessary to include the number of pages in a book. Page number information should be deleted from this citation.


Citation 16: (journal article)
      Sidlecki, W., & Yertz, M. M. (1989). Getting the Sounds on Paper: Transcribing Pig Latin Using Simplified IPA. Sound and language, 16, 99-108.

Incorrect Citation: It is not necessary to capitalize all words in any title in APA style. Capitalize only the first word of title and subtitle, along with any other obligatory capitalizations (such as for names of people, places, and languages).

The article title for this citation should be:

Getting the sounds on paper: Transcribing Pig Latin using simplified IPA.


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