TIGHTENING YOUR APA STYLE

APA REFERENCE STYLE: Kinds of Sources

Introduction Basic Formatting

The citation you write will depend on a major factor: the kind of source you're referring to. The type of the source will determine the elements that need to be included and the order in which they are presented. While there are actually many different types of source materials, there are certain kinds that are cited most often:

BOOKS. This is a blanket term for any piece of writing that is published only once (rather than as part of a regular series) in which the individual chapters have the same author or authors.

Citation format for Books

ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. Journals are called periodicals because they are published periodically: at fairly regular intervals from year to year. The articles in the various installments of each journal are usually written by different authors from issue to issue.

Citation format for Journal Articles

CHAPTERS IN EDITED BOOKS. Often an editor will collect articles by various authors and publish them together in book form. Alternatively, an editor will sometimes outline a topic and ask different specialists to write a section on each subtopic. Whatever the origin, a book that is written by diverse authors is called an edited book, and the individual sections are referred to as chapters.

Citation format for Book Chapters

ERIC DOCUMENTS. ERIC is an acronym which stands for the Educational Resources Information Center, an entity sponsored by the National Institute of Education. The sources which ERIC issues on microfiche are mostly works of research which are unavailable anywhere else. Most college library subscribe to the ERIC document service.

Citation format for ERIC Documents

INTERNET RESOURCES. A vast quantity of information is available on the internet, or World Wide Web. Most often access to these electronic documents is obtained either via a modem, or by connecting to a local network of some kind. Two different types of general-access internet sources are discussed here: documents accessed directly on the World Wide Web, and those obtained from the Web indirectly, via email.

Citation format for Internet Resources

UNPUBLISHED SOURCES. Many sources that may be available to you may be unpublished papers or manuscripts that have been submitted for publication, but are not yet accepted or published. It is important to cite information from these sources to make sure that the proper people are given credit for their work.

Citation format for Unpublished Sources

CONFERENCE PAPERS. Conferences and symposiums are the main place for the latest research to be presented. While some of these papers find their way into journal or edited books, many do not. Therefore, this is an important source of information that should not be overlooked or ignored.

Citation format for Conference Papers (Under construction)
This list is certainly not exclusive. There are many more types of sources that are commonly cited in research papers, such as interviews, personal letters, emailed documents, and videotaped materials. For help in citing these less-commonly used sources, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association or one of the other reference works listed on the Further Information page.


Introduction Basic Formatting

Table of Contents
Citation Style: Books
List of Citation Formats
Introduction
Citation Style: Chapters
Citation Practice 1
Kinds of Sources
Citation Style: ERIC Docs
Citation Practice 2
Basic Formatting
Citation Style: Internet Docs
Further Information
Citation Style: Unpublished Sources
Citation Style: Conference Papers
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