TIGHTENING YOUR APA STYLE

APA REFERENCE STYLE: Basic Formatting

Kinds of Sources Citation Style: Books

At first glance, reference formats may appear confusing. Though it might seem that each type of source has its own particular specifications, there is actually quite a bit of "overlap" in citation formats. This is especially true with the major elements, those which are common to all types of source:


AUTHORS
      There are basically two types of authors: people and institutions. There are specific formatting guidelines for both types of author.

PEOPLE AS AUTHORS
      The number of people credited with authoring a particular document can range from one to twelve and more. When large groups of people generate a text, authorship is often assigned to the institution that these people have in common. In most cases, however, the authors of a document are named individually, and each name is given in the bibliographic reference for that work.
      For each person listed as an author, you must give that person's last name, and the initials of any other "name elements" given for that person. If a first or middle name is given, you will provide only the first initial of that first or last name. If a first or middle initial is given, these initials go in as read. For authors (though not for editors), type the last name, then a comma, then first and middle (and any subsequent) initials. Put a period after each initial. For example:

John Wilkes BoothBooth, J. W.
John F. KennedyKennedy, J. F.
C. Thomas HowellHowell, C. T.
P. D. JamesJames, P. D.
J. R. R. TolkienTolkien, J. R. R.

      When multiple authors are given for a single document, all authors are listed in the order given in the document. Put a comma between each person's name, and put an ampersand (&) before the final name. If only two authors are given, this means the ampersand goes between the first and second author. Since the list of authors will necessarily end with the period that follows the final initial of the final author listed, no further punctuation is needed. Here are some examples:

One authorBlythe, Q. L.
Two authorsMartin, U. M., & Wenmbsley-Meekes, I.
Three authorsAaron, H., Upswitch, J. T., & Rennington, S.
Seven authorsSleepy, A., Happy, B., Grumpy, C., Sneezy, D., Bashful, E., Dopey, F., & Doc, G.

INSTITUTIONS AS AUTHORS
      Sometimes a particular person or group of people is not credited with authorship of a document. In cases like this, the work is said to have "institutional authorship". Citing institutions as authors is quite simple. Simply spell out the name of the institution and end it with a period. Do not use abbreviations in institutional authors: spell everything out. Capitalize every word in the name of the institution, except for prepositions (like of, to, and from), articles (like a, an, and the), and conjunctions (like and and or). However, if the first word of the title is a preposition, article or conjunction, capitalize it anyway.

Institutional AuthorsWorld Association of Pig Latin Teachers.

The Corporation to Promote Pig Latin Fluency.


PUBLICATION DATES
      It's important to know the date a document was published. This information tells the reader how much time has passed between the writing and publication of the source document and the writing of your own research paper. Obviously, in research writing, the newer the information, the better.
      The date of publication is almost always the second element of the reference, coming right after the author(s). With few exceptions, only the year of publication is given. The year is included in parenthesis, and followed by a period.

Standard form(1994).

REPUBLISHED BOOKS
      Sometimes a book is republished for various reasons. If a book is out of print, and sufficient demand exists, a publisher might begin printing it again to capitalize on that demand. When this happens, citing the newer publication date would be misleading-the book is exactly the same as when it was originally published. In cases like this, two dates are given: the original publication date and the new publication date. The two dates are included in parentheses, separated by a slash. The right parenthesis is followed by a period.

NO DATE GIVEN
      In rare cases, no date is given for the publication of a source. While this is much more common with older sources, this still happens today. Instead of a date, when a date is not available, simply put "n.d."-for no date-in the parentheses. Follow the right parenthesis with a period.

Standard form(1994).
Republished source(1969/1996).
No date given(n.d.).


TITLES
      Every document has (or should have) a title. Some citations--such as articles in journals and chapters in edited books--will actually need two titles: the title of the smaller work (the article or chapter) and the title of the larger work (the journal or book). Whether one or two titles is necessary will depend on the source you are working with.
      Titles are often broken into two or more parts. Sometimes a subtitle is tacked onto a title to clarify the meaning of the title. Sometimes the title as written is purposefully obscure; the subtitle in these cases indicates the source's real content. If a source like a book or monograph is part of a series, the series title is sometimes included as a sort of subtitle. It's important to know how to format the various elements of your source's title.
      Capitalize the first word in each element: main title, subtitle, and series name. If any element contains a proper name, capitalize that too. Use a colon (:) between main title and subtitle, main title and series name, or subtitle and series name. Precede a series name with the abbreviation "Vol." and the source's number within that series, as in "Vol. 2." If all three elements exist, put the series name last.
      The titles of larger sources (such as books and journals) are underlined, while the titles of smaller sources (such as articles and chapters) are not. Additionally, some titles are followed by a period, while others are not. Check the section on the individual source type for further information about formatting the title(s).

Title onlyA handbook for Pig Latin educators
Title and subtitlePerpetuating porcine persuasion: Pig Latin and its role in public speaking
Title and series nameElements of umlaut in Mediterranian dialects of Pig Latin: Vol. 6. Studies in PL phonology
Title, subtitle, and series namePig Latin versus Pig Dutch: A contrastive grammar: Vol. 23. Studies in comparative linguistics


Kinds of Sources Citation Style: Books

Table of Contents
Citation Style: Books
List of Citation Formats
Introduction
Citation Style: Chapters
Citation Practice 1
Kinds of Sources
Citation Style: ERIC Docs
Citation Practice 2
Basic Formatting
Citation Style: Internet Docs
Further Information
Citation Style: Unpublished Sources
Citation Style: Conference Papers
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