TIGHTENING YOUR APA STYLE

APA REFERENCE STYLE: Books

Basic Formatting Citation Style: Journals

A book is a work that is published once, not as part of a regular series. Books can be revised and republished: each revision is considered a new edition of the same book. A book, as we are defining it here, is distinguished from an edited book in that the entire text of the work is written by the same author, group of authors, or institution. If individual sections of the work you are citing were written by different authors, refer to the page, Chapters in Edited Books.

Some books provide an overview of a specific topic, and are valuable in this respect. Other books contain an extended discussion of a very specific subtopic, going to a level of detail which would be impossible in a shorter work. Very often, a book of this type will be intended as a definitive work. Unfortunately, however, books go out of date-the process of book publishing is long and theories change quickly. Libraries usually hold onto books long after the theories they contain are proven invalid. It is therefore important to make sure that the books you use are as up to date as possible.

NECESSARY INFORMATION AND WHERE TO FIND IT:

Author(s) of book can generally be found on both the cover (or dust jacket) and title page.
Year of publication can sometimes be found at the bottom of the title page; otherwise look on the page directly behind the title page, where it says "Copyright ©."
Title of book can be found on both the cover (or dust jacket) and title page (naturally).
Edition/revision
number (if any)
is usually indicated on the cover (or dust jacket) or title page. If no edition number or revision information is present on either of these places, assume that the book is an original edition.
Place of publication is usually listed on the title page
Publishing entity is almost always listed at the bottom of the title page. If no listing is made here, try the page directly behind the title page.


CITATION ELEMENTS

AUTHOR(S) OF BOOK
      For books, put each author's last name, then a comma, then the first initial of the first name, then any additional initials. A period should follow each initial. Separate the last author from the second-to-last author with a comma and ampersand (&). Separate any additional authors by commas. If the listed author is a group or institution, include its full name. In the case of institutional authorship, add a period to end the section; for individual authors, no extra period is needed-the period after the final initial is sufficient.

One authorSmith, M. T.
Two authorsBeddington-Meekes, J. A., & Hiroguchi, M.
Three authorsJones, Q. P., Chen, C. L., & Crismon, S.
Institutional authorItalian Institute of Pig Language Research.

YEAR OF PUBLICATION
      For books, include only the year of copyright, in parenthesis, then end with a period. If the book was republished, include the original date of publication and the new date in the text citation, separated by a slash (/), but put only the publication date of the source used in the reference list. If no date of publication is listed, put "n.d." in the parenthesis.

Standard form(1994).
Republished book (in text citation)(1969/1996).
No date given(n.d.).

TITLE OF BOOK
      Give the full title of the book, including the subtitle if one is given. Capitalize only the first word of the title, and the first word of any subtitle; also capitalize any proper names in the title. Separate title and subtitle with a colon (:). If the book is a volume in a titled series of books, add the series title as a subtitle. Put the title, subtitle, and series information in italics, and end with a period.

Standard formThe evolution of the Pig Latin-Pig Pidgin continuum.
Title and subtitleMud, troughs, and slop: Using realia in the secondary Pig Latin classroom.
Title and series namePig Latin phonology: Vol. 2. Current issues in Pig Latin studies.

EDITION/REVISION NUMBER
      For numbered editions, use the abbreviation for the ordinal number that applies (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.), then add "ed." For a revised edition, use the abbreviations "Rev. ed." Include edition information in parenthesis, and insert it between the book title and its following period, without underlining.

Numbered editionBook title (3rd ed.).
Revised editionBook title (Rev. ed.).

PLACE OF PUBLICATION
      Certain common cities of publication are included with no additional information. These include: Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Amsterdam, Jerusalem, London, Milan, Moscow, Paris, Rome, Stockholm, Tokyo, Vienna. If the book was published in one of these places, simply list the city, followed by a colon (:).
      If the book's place of publication is not one of these cities, additional information is needed. For American locations, include the city and state postal abbreviation, separated by a comma. For locations outside the United States, include the city and country, separated by a comma. Follow each type of location with a colon.

Common locationsNew York:

Milan:

American locationWynot, NE:
Other locationsTalcahuano, Chile:

Suva, Fiji:

PUBLISHING ENTITY
      Give as much of the publisher's name as necessary to render it comprehensible. Completely spell out the names of university presses and corporations, but cut such words as Inc., Co., and Publishers from commercial publishing companies. Follow the publisher's name with a period.

Commercial pressCollins.
University pressCambridge University Press.
Corporate pressGeneral Electric Corporation.


CITATION FORMATS:

      Author, A. A. (1996). Title of book. City: Publisher.

      Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1996). Title of book: Subtitle of book (edition). City, ST: Publisher.

      Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1996). Title of book: Vol. 1. Title of series. City, Country: Publisher.


EXAMPLE CITATIONS:

Book Example 1

Citation:      Webb, C. D. (1992). A theoretical basis for Pig Latin semiotics. New Haven, CT: Bayside.


Book Example 2

Citation:      Brandow, A. E., & Wenceler, S. (1987). Breaking the language barrier: Our experiences teaching Pig Latin to South American aboriginal peoples (Rev. ed.). Kalohe, HI: Kahoolawe University Press.


Book Example 3

Citation:      Larrison, L., Curliman, P. D., & Moer, J. Q. (1978). Pig Latin pedagogy: Vol. 6. Language teachers' resource. Nottingham, England: Association of British Language Teachers.
In-text Citation:(Larrison, Curliman, & Moer, 1965/1978).


Basic Formatting Citation Style: Journals

Table of Contents
Citation Style: Books
List of Citation Formats
Introduction
Citation Style: Chapters
Citation Practice 1
Kinds of Sources
Citation Style: ERIC Docs
Citation Practice 2
Basic Formatting
Citation Style: Internet Docs
Further Information
Citation Style: Unpublished Sources
Citation Style: Conference Papers
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