TIGHTENING YOUR APA STYLE

APA REFERENCE STYLE: Articles In Journals

Citation Style: Books Citation Style: Chapters

Journal is a blanket term for a scholarly publication that is published periodically-generally either monthly or quarterly. A journal is distinct from a magazine in that journals are generally for a very specific audience: experts within a specific scholarly or professional field. Magazines, on the other hand, usually have a more general readership. While magazines sometimes report new or ongoing research, the information is often given second-hand. If an article in a magazine reports any kind of scholarly research, chances are pretty good that the information was originally presented in a journal.

The information contained in a journal article is often more valuable than the information found in books,because turnaround time for journals is usually quite short. While it takes months or years for a book to be published, an article could conceivably be written, submitted, accepted, and published in a journal all in a matter of weeks. Thus, since journal articles generally present fresh, cutting-edge information, their value and validity in the research process cannot be understated.

NECESSARY INFORMATION AND WHERE TO FIND IT:

Author(s) of article can be found either in the table of contents or on the first page of the article.
Year of publication is almost always included on the front cover of the journal, or on the journal's title page. Often the publication year can also be found on the first page of each article, at the top of each page, or on the journal's spine.
Title of article is printed in the table of contents and on the first page of the article.
Title of journal is indicated on the journal's front cover or title page. Sometimes it will also be printed at the top of each page and on the journal's spine.
Volume number is usually noted on the front cover or title page of the journal.
Issue number is used only if the journal paginates each issue individually; the issue number can usually be found either on the front cover or title page. Sometimes the issue number is also found on the first page of the article.
Pages of chapter are sometimes specified as a range in the table of contents; otherwise, make a note of the first and last page numbers of the actual article.


CITATION ELEMENTS

AUTHOR(S) OF ARTICLE
      For journal articles, put each author's last name, then a comma, then the first initial of the given name, then any additional initials. A period should follow each initial. Separate the last author from the second-to-last author with a comma and ampersand (&). Separate any additional authors by commas.

One authorKeely, J. T.
Two authorsLuggio, M. R., & Moulton-Kowinski, R. S.
Three authorsJackson, B. I., Jackson, G. P., & Jackson, I. G.

YEAR OF PUBLICATION
      Even though a month or season of publication may be given for a specific journal, include only the year of publication, in parenthesis, and end with a period. (An individual issue within a journal's yearly output is indicated by the page range, if the journal paginates by volume, or issue number, if the journal paginates by issue.)

Standard form(1993).

(1982).

TITLE OF ARTICLE
      Give the full title of the article, including the subtitle if one is given. Capitalize only the first word of the title, and the first word of any subtitle; also capitalize any proper names in the title. Separate title and subtitle with a colon (:). Journal articles do not get any other special formatting: no quotation marks or underlining. End the title with a period.

Standard formAnecdotal evidence for Pig Latin syllable boundaries.
Title and subtitleEtardedray?: Nonstandard development of Pig Latin in mentally challenged children.

TITLE OF JOURNAL
      The title of the journal is given in full, including the subtitle if any. Capitalize only the first word of the title, and the first word of any subtitle; also capitalize any proper names in the title. Separate title and subtitle with a colon (:). Italicize the title and subtitle and follow them with a comma, which is also in italics.

Standard formPig Latin teaching and learning,
Title and subtitlePigus: Journal of Pig Latin studies,

VOLUME NUMBER
      The volume number indicates the total number of years a particular journal has been published-one volume per year. Sometimes a journal prints its volume number in Roman numerals; if this is the case, translate the volume number into Arabic (regular) numerals. The volume number is preceded by a comma and space, then followed by a comma. If no issue number is necessary (see next section), the journal title, comma and space, volume number, and comma are italicized continuously. If an issue number is present, only the journal title, comma and space, and volume number are italicized. The issue number, and the comma which follows it, is never italicized.

Volume aloneJournal title, 25,
Volume and issueJournal title, 18 (6),

ISSUE NUMBER
      An issue number is only provided if the particular journal starts pagination over at page 1 at the beginning of each issue. If pagination does not start over for every issue, issue numbers are redundant-they give more information than is necessary to re-locate the source. However, if each issue's pagination begins with page 1, give the issue number in your reference entry. After the volume number, put a space, then the issue number in parentheses, then a comma. Neither the issue number, the space before it, or the comma after it is italicizedd.

Standard formJournal title, 25 (6),

Journal title, 18 (3),

PAGE NUMBERS
      Page numbers give the range of pages for the journal article. The first number is the first page on which the article appears; the second number is the last page of the article's text, notes or bibliography (whichever comes last). The page numbers come directly after the comma that follows the volume or issue number, and are preceded by a space, separated by a hyphen, and followed by a period.

After volume18, 94-156.
After issue9 (6), 221-238.


CITATION FORMATS:

      Author, A. A. (1996). Title of journal article. Title of journal, volume number, first page-last page.

      Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1996). Title of journal article: Subtitle of journal article. Title of journal, volume number, first page-last page.

      Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1996). Title of journal article. Title of journal: Subtitle of journal, volume number (issue number), first page-last page.


EXAMPLE CITATIONS:

Journal Example 1

Citation:      Almeida, L. (1990). Morphological differences between American and Brazilian Pig Latin constructions. Piggiotica, 13, 946-987.


Journal Example 2

Citation:      Cruise, T., & Kidman, N. (1995). Divergent Pig Latin formation in egocentric dyslexic males: One possible explanation. Pig Latin neurolinguistics, 9, 125-180.


Journal Example 2

Citation:      Chomsky, N., Halle, M., & Harris, Z. (1960). Toward a generative model of Pig Latin syntax. Pigology: Current issues in Pig Latin research, 26 (2), 247-289.


Citation Style: Books Citation Style: Chapters

Table of Contents
Citation Style: Books
List of Citation Formats
Introduction
Citation Style: Chapters
Citation Practice 1
Kinds of Sources
Citation Style: ERIC Docs
Citation Practice 2
Basic Formatting
Citation Style: Internet Docs
Further Information
Citation Style: Unpublished Sources
Citation Style: Conference Papers
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