Idioms as a Measure of Proficiency
This purpose of this thesis is to explore the relationship between idiomatic knowledge and second language proficiency. As the amount of research directly related to this topic is sparse, an in-depth discussion of relevant research and definitions comprises the first part of this paper. Two studies are then presented here that test the relationship between idiomatic knowledge and second language proficiency. A new definition for idioms proposes that all non-compositional phrases, popularized by usage, that is stored, retrieved, and employed as a single lexical unit. The results from more than 400 participants across two studies indicate that the two constructs are strongly correlated, but that the observable relationship between them is only modest. Additional results from the two studies also indicate that idiomatic knowledge is more strongly correlated with speaking skill than with writing or reading skills. The impacts of this study on existing research are discussed and directions for new research is suggested.
Author: Vanderniet, Kyle Hugh
A Motivational, Online Guide to Help English Language Learners with the Development,Implementation, and Evaluation of their Individual Pronunciation Improvement Plans
Intelligibility is one of the major concerns among ESL learners due to its impact on their ability to communicate with native speakers of English (Derwing & Munro, 2005). Even though pronunciation is often addressed in classrooms, it is difficult to tackle all intelligibility issues relevant for each student. Therefore, it is crucial for ESL learners to spend some extra time outside of class improving their pronunciation. Faced with a daunting task of regulating and taking charge of their own learning, they often have questions with respect to what exactly they need to work on, what activities will help them achieve their goals, how they need to organize those activities, and how long they should practice until they can see results. In such an endeavor, issues like motivation to persist and put forth great effort arise and influence outcomes. In sum, many factors are in play when ESL learners strive to improve their intelligibility. The main purpose of creating Sofia’s ESL Pronunciation Lab is to guide ESL learners in improving intelligibility, while helping them feel confident and motivated about what they are doing. Thirty students participated in the pilot-testing phase of this project. They participated in six weeks of self-regulated instruction followed by the completion of a survey at the end of that period. The results show that Sofia’s ESL Pronunciation Lab accomplished its purpose. Students thought that the website guided them well in the creation and implementation of their own improvement plan. They also thought that the online guide was professional and informative. Several students gave constructive feedback to further enhance the website. Most suggestions were related to including more graphics and visuals as well as adding more content, such as examples and activities. Overall, students believed that the online guide was a helpful addition to the current instruction they were receiving as part of an intensive English language program of study.
Author: Carreno Galdame, Sofia Laura
A Diachronic Analysis of North and South Korean Monophthongs: Vowel Shifts on the Korean Peninsula
The linguistic situation on the Korean peninsula is one ripe for research. For the past 70 years the two halves of the peninsula have been isolated from one another, thus creating two very different environments for development and change within the Korean language. It is hypothesized that due to conflict, divide, and social turmoil on the peninsula, the Korean language will have undergone a period of change in the last 70 years. This particular investigation looks at North and South Korean monophthong systems for evidence of a phonological shift. Studies of North Korea’s language planning (Yong, 2001; Kumatani, 1990) will be incorporated to provide a background for lexical change in the country, which may also have contributed to phonological change. This study was carried out with the expectation that, due to the turmoil following the Korean War, both standard dialects would display some signs of phonetic shift.In order to track the changes to the monophthong systems over the last 70 years, a total of 7156 samples of the Korean language’s eight monophthongs were collected from both North and South Korean films from the 1950s, 1980s, and 2010s. The vowels’ F1 and F2 formants were measured using the computer program Praat. The data was then separated by vowel and run through statistical analyses. The results of a mixed methods ANOVA determined which vowels had shown significant variance between decades; the estimated means were then determined for each formant. Based on the statistical analysis, the North Korean vowels /a/, /Λ/, and /u/ have shifted significantly since the 1950s, while the rest of the North Korean monophthong system has not changed significantly. Most of the shifting occurred in the period after the 1980s. In the South, all vowels have shown significant variance for the variable of decade in F1, F2, or both formants. South Korea’s results also indicate separate shifts between the 1950s and 1980s, and between the 1980s and 2010s. If the results of this study could be successfully replicated with the languages of other countries thrown into post-WWII turmoil, this study could prove that WWII left a lasting effect on the languages of the world as well. Even if there are not far-reaching implications, the study still demonstrates strong evidence that linguistic change has occurred in both the northern and southern halves of the Korean peninsula since it was split into two separate countries.
Author: Morgan, Jessica M.
How We Feel About How We Talk: A Language Attitude Survey of Utah English
Research has shown that Utah English is a distinct variety of English, particularly as spoken in the Wasatch front region (Lillie 1998). It is characterized by particular linguistic features, including tense/lax vowel mergers before tautosyllabic /l/ (Di Paolo and Farber 1990) and the oral release of glottal stops in certain environments (Eddington and Savage 2012). The features of this variety have been studied; however, not much research has been done about the positive or negative attitudes people hold toward it. Casual observation indicates that Utahans themselves may judge speakers of this variety more harshly than do people from other regions. The present study was conducted to determine if this is true, and to determine what other factors have an influence on a person’s perception of Utah English. A language attitude study was performed using the matched-guise method. Participants were asked to react to recorded speakers, judging how intelligent and friendly they sounded. When multiple Utah English features were combined in a passage, the majority of participants judged the speaker to be unintelligent and unfriendly; also, participants’ judgments of the speakers’ intelligence deviated significantly based on the participants’ location of origin, with significant interactions between location of origin and age group. When Utah English features were looked at separately, participants’ judgments of both the speakers’ intelligence and the speakers’ friendliness deviated significantly based on which feature was being heard and the gender of the participant, with interactions between feature and gender, feature and age group, and feature and location of origin. Overall, Utahan participants judged speech with Utah English features to be worse than did participants from other locations.
Author: Savage, David Matthew
Parameters that Affect the Comfort Levels of Native English Speakers Communicating with Non-Native English Speakers
This study explores how native English speakers (NESs) are affected by the backgrounds of non-native English speakers (NNESs) when it comes to being comfortable interacting with then in English. Speech samples of 12 NNESs were gathered from the Level Achievement Tests conducted at Brigham Young University’s English Language Center. There were six speakers who spoke Spanish as their first language (L1) and six speakers who spoke Chinese as their L1. In each L1 group, there were two Low proficiency speakers, two Mid proficiency speakers, and two High proficiency speakers. The speech samples were included in a Qualtrics survey which was completed by 122 American NES participants. The NES participants listened to each speech sample and rated their comfort level interacting with each NNES speaker in six different communication situations categorized as either formal or casual. The results were statistically analyzed in order to determine the effect of proficiency level, L1, and communication situation on NES comfort levels in NNES interactions. High proficiency speakers were rated significantly higher than Mid proficiency speakers which were in turn rated higher than Low proficiency speakers. Spanish L1 speakers were rated higher than Chinese L1 speakers. The more casual communication situations were ranked higher than the more formal communication situations. A statistical analysis of the interaction between proficiency level and L1 revealed that Spanish L1 speakers were strongly preferred at higher proficiency levels but Chinese L1 speakers were preferred at lower proficiency levels. These results suggest that Spanish L1 speakers have a greater need to be higher than Low proficiency while Chinese L1 speakers have a greater need to achieve High proficiency. NNESs who anticipate being in formal situations should also aim for High proficiency.
Author: Nymeyer, Kayla Marie
Establishing the Viability of the Multidimensional Quality Metrics Framework
The Multidimensional Quality Metrics (MQM) framework is a new system for creating customized translation quality assessment and evaluation metrics designed to fit specific translation needs. In this study I test the viability of MQM to determine whether the framework in its current state is ready for implementation as a quality assessment framework in the translation industry. Other contributions from this study include: (1) online software for designing and using metrics based on the MQM framework; (2) a survey of the typical, real-world quality assessment and evaluation practices of language service providers in the translation industry; and (3) a measurement scale for determining the viability of translation quality assessment and evaluation frameworks such as MQM. The study demonstrates that the MQM framework is a viable solution when it comes to the validity and practicality of creating translation quality metrics for the translation industry. It is not clear whether those metrics can be used reliably without extensive training of qualified assessors on the use of MQM metrics.
Author: Snow, Tyler A
A Corpus-Based Analysis of Russian Word Order Patterns
Some scholars say that Russian syntax has free word order. However, other researchers claim that the basic word order of Russian is Subject, Verb, Object (SVO). Some researchers also assert that the use of different word orders may be influenced by various factors, including positions of discourse topic and focus, and register (spoken, fiction, academic, non-academic). In addition, corpora have been shown to be useful tools in gathering empirical linguistic data, and modern advances in computing have made corpora freely available and their use widespread. The Russian National Corpus is a large corpus of Russian that is widely used and well suited to syntactic research. This thesis aims to answer three research questions: 1) If all six word orders in Russian are possible, what frequencies of each order will I find in a data sample from the Russian National Corpus? 2) Do the positions of discourse topic and focus influence word order variations? 3) Does register (spoken, fiction, academic, non-academic) influence word order variations? A sample of 500 transitive sentences was gathered from the Russian National Corpus and each one was analyzed for its word order, discourse pattern, and register. Results found that a majority of the sentences were SVO. Additionally, a majority of the sample contained the topic before the focus, and most of the sample were from the non-academic register. A chi-square analysis for each research question showed statistically significant results. This indicates that the results were not a product of chance, and that discourse patterns and register influence word order variations. These findings provide evidence that there is a predominant word order in Russian.
Author: Billings, Stephanie Kay
English to ASL Gloss Machine Translation
Low-resource languages, including sign languages, are a challenge for machine translation research. Given the lack of parallel corpora, current researchers must be content with a small parallel corpus in a narrow domain for training a system. For this thesis, we obtained a small parallel corpus of English text and American Sign Language gloss from The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. We cleaned the corpus by loading it into an open-source translation memory tool, where we removed computer markup language and split the large chunks of text into sentences and phrases, creating a total of 14,247 sentence pairs. We randomly partitioned the corpus into three sections: 70% for a training set, 10% for a development set, and 20% for a test set. After downloading and installing the open-source Moses toolkit, we went through several iterations of training, translating, and evaluating the system. The final evaluation on unseen data yielded a state-of-the-art score for a low-resource language.
Author: Bonham, Mary Elizabeth
Teaching Practice and Motivation Among Albanian and Japanese Missionaries
This study explored the relationship between the use of motivational strategies by Albanian and Japanese teachers and the observed and reported motivation of missionaries at the Missionary Training Center (MTC) for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Provo, Utah. The aim of this study was to collect baseline data about the motivational strategies already employed by teachers in the Albanian and Japanese areas of the MTC and to explore the relationship that the teachers’ use of these strategies has with the motivation of the respective missionaries. The data for this study was collected from seven teachers and 28 learners during a series of observations using a modified version of the Motivation Orientation of Language Teaching (MOLT), a classroom observation instrument developed by Guilloteaux and Dörnyei (2008). The MOLT is used to record the observable motivated behavior of learners as well as the motivational practices of the teachers according to Dörnyei’s (2001) foreign language classroom motivational strategy framework. Each participating class was observed using the MOLT three times during the missionaries’ nine-week stay in the MTC. The data from the observations was supplemented with teacher and learner surveys administered during the first and final weeks of the study period. Not only was this study useful for collecting valuable information about teaching practice at the MTC, but it also adds a new dimension to the empirical research that has been done in motivation in second language acquisition by expanding the research to English speakers being taught in foreign languages, whereas most research had been focused in ESL and EFL contexts. It is the first study to combine surveys with an observation component in target languages other than English. The results of this study support previous findings that teacher use of motivational strategies does indeed correlate significantly with learner motivation.
Author: Hoopes, Rebekah
TESOL Employment Ads in China and South Korea: Personal Characteristics, Knowledge, and Skills Identified in Full-Time Ads Posted for International Instructors
The purpose of this master’s project was to investigate the types of personal characteristics, knowledge, and skills TESOL employers are seeking in foreign job candidates in today’s biggest EFL job markets, specifically in China and South Korea. First, the literature review introduces the enormous development of the EFL job market in these two countries and some challenges these two countries faced in their attempt to hire foreign EFL teachers. A total of 303 job advertisements were gathered from two Internet sources (Dave’s ESL Café and TESOL.org) that met all the established criteria for choosing a reliable data source during a 12-month period and analyzed in order to determine the personal characteristics, knowledge, and skills listed by TESOL employers in these two Asian countries. The results indicate that 92% of the ads required international applicants to be native speakers of English. Key skills needed in both countries included communication skills, computer skills, a high level of English language proficiency, and writing skills. The majority of the full-time positions sought instructors with experience in materials development, curriculum development, or assessment. In terms of personal characteristics, employers want applicants to be enthusiastic, energetic, dedicated, and interested in young learners ranging in age from kindergarten to high school level. These findings have important implications for those TESOL graduates preparing themselves to obtain full-time jobs in China and South Korea.
Author: Lee. Jae-Song
The Effect of Prompt Accent on Elicited Imitation Assessments in English as a Second Language
Elicited imitation (EI) assessment has been shown to have value as an inexpensive method for low-stakes tests (Cox & Davies, 2012), but little has been reported on the effect L2 accent has on test-takers’ ability to understand and process the test items they hear. Furthermore, no study has investigated the effect of accent on EI test face validity. This study examined how the accent of input audio files affected EI test difficulty as well as test-takers’ perceptions of such an effect. To investigate, self-reports of students’ exposure to different varieties of English were obtained from a pre-assessment survey. A 63-item EI test was then administered in which English language learners in the United States listened to test items in three varieties of English: American English, Australian English, and British English. A post-assessment survey was then administered to gather information regarding perceived difficulty of accented prompts. A many facet Rasch analysis found that accent affected item difficulty in an EI test with a separation reliability coefficient of .98—British English being the most difficult and American English the easiest. Survey results indicated that students perceived this increase in difficulty, and ANOVAs between the survey and test results indicated that student perceptions of an increase in difficulty aligned with reality. Specifically, accents that students were “Not at all Familiar” with resulted in significantly lower EI test scores than accents with which the students were familiar. These findings suggest that prompt accent should be carefully considered in EI test development.
Author: Barrows, Jacob Garlin
Botheration and Recognition of Prescriptive Rules
Passions flare up around the use and “misuse” of prescriptive rules. Where there is variation in language use, language judgment usually follows—attaching value judgment to linguistic variants forms the foundation of prescriptive ideology in English. Prescriptive attitudes prevail among speakers and writers of English, who feel some pressure to use these forms to avoid a negative judgment. This study surveyed American English speakers using Mechanical Turk to determine which types of rules—spelling, syntactic, morphological, and lexical—bother people the most and inspire the harshest judgments when violated. The surveys asked participants to identify a violated prescriptive rule in a sentence, found using the magazine and newspaper registers of the Corpus of Contemporary American English, and then to indicate how much they were bothered by the violation. Results indicated that lexical rules separating subtle semantic differences—i.e. farther vs. further, comprise vs. compose—tend to be less bothersome and less recognizable than other types of rules. However, the type of category that a prescriptive rules falls under does not seem to explain why some rules are more bothersome or recognizable than others. It may be possible to generalize by assuming that lexical prescriptive rules will be less important to a general educated American audience than spelling or grammar rules, and that nonstandard dialectal forms will be even more bothersome. However, the ability to generalize these results is limited: there is some evidence for a “pet-peeve” effect. Individuals seem to simply be bothered by different rules, without strong patterns showing some types of rules sharply more important than others. Additionally other prescriptive rules, including those regarding nauseous and dove as the past tense of dive, were more recognizable and bothersome in their prescribed form than their proscribed, providing evidence for semantic shifts.
Author: Smith, Sara D.
Syriac Rhetorical Particles: Variable Second-Position Clitic Placement
Investigation on second-position clitic phenomena has steadily increased since Wackernagel’s (1892) observations. Researchers have applied contemporary clitic typology to various Semitic languages though Syriac has received little attention. This thesis identifies a group of Syriac rhetorical particles and describes their categorization as clitics, versus words or affixes. It establishes each of the Syriac particles as second-position clitics and provides evidence of this conclusion from a state-of-the-art digitized corpus of Syriac literature. Extending previous Syriac analyses, this thesis describes the nature of attachment of these second-position clitics as enclisis to either the first word or the first constituent/phrase of their domain. This variable clitic attachment behavior has been previously attested only in three other unrelated languages: Serbo-Croatian, Luiseño and Ngiyambaa. I discuss the analysis and application of these discoveries and their implications for future Syriac and linguistic research.
Author: Pearson, Patrick
The Language and Cross-Cultural Perceptions of Deception
While much research has shown that some linguistic features can indicate a person is lying, this line of research has led to conflicting results. Furthermore, very little research has been done to verify that these supposed linguistic features of deception are universal. In addition, few studies have researched the cross-cultural perceptions of deception, which knowledge could greatly improve the detection of deception across cultures. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature by analyzing and comparing truthful and deceptive discourse of eight native English-speaking Americans and eight non-native English-speaking Ghanaians. The discourse was elicited in one-on-one interviews where each interviewee spontaneously responded to questions about themselves. Later, interviewee responses were judged by 47 native English-speaking Americans and 35 non-native English-speaking Ghanaians. The results showed that Americans and Ghanaians lie differently—Americans’ lies were more superfluous and redundant; had more pronoun inconsistencies, adjectives, adverbs, and modal verbs; and had fewer negative emotion words than their truths. Ghanaians’ lies, on the other hand, also had more pronoun inconsistencies but had fewer negations than their truths. Furthermore, the groups’ baseline speech differed in superfluousness, positive emotion words, word count, and response latency. Regarding detecting deception, Ghanaians were slightly more accurate and significantly more confident in detecting lies than Americans. Both groups were slightly more accurate and confident in judging the veracity of statements within their own cultures. Neither group, however, demonstrated truth- or lie-bias cross-culturally. These results have implications for law enforcement investigators and analysts who can learn the differences between Americans’ and Ghanaians’ truthful and deceptive speech so as to more accurately detect deception through language. In addition, cross-cultural deception perception research can improve cross-cultural communication and understanding.
Author: Laing, Brent Logan
Grammatical Features of Structural Elaboration and Compression Common in Advanced ESL Academic Writing
The present study replicated the research framework of a previous study (Biber, Gray, & Poonpon, 2011) that identifies the grammatical complexity of L1 professional academic prose as strongly favoring a dense use of phrasal nominal modifiers such as prepositional phrases as postmodifiers, attributive adjectives, and nouns as premodifiers which characterize its unique structurally compressed discourse style. The main purpose of the present study was to explore syntactic similarities and differences between L1 professional and L2 student academic writing in terms of their reliance on phrasal/nominal compression features to determine characteristics of the grammatical complexity of advanced ESL academic writing. To this end, the distributional patterns of use for 25 specific grammatical complexity features of structural elaboration and compression were investigated in a corpus of 128 short academic essays collected from 16 advanced ESL learners and 16 L1 university students (as comparison data).The results showed a heavier reliance of both the advanced ESL and L1 student academic writing on phrasal nominal modifiers (attributive adjectives and prepositional phrases as postmodifiers) of structural compression than on clausal elaboration features, which lent empirical support to Biber, Gray, and Poonpon’s (2011) findings. In addition to the phrasal compression features, both the advanced ESL and L1 student academic writing were also characterized by a prominent use of specific colloquial grammatical devices such as adverbs as adverbials. Compared to the advanced ESL writing, the L1 student academic writing showed a significantly more preference for one particular colloquial feature: ZERO relative clauses where relative pronouns replacing relativized objects are omitted. This combined reliance on both phrasal compression devices and colloquial features in both the advanced ESL and L1 student academic writing distinguished their grammatical complexities from that of L1 professional academic prose and signaled a possibility for recognizing them as a transitional developmental stage from more casual to more academic writing.
Author: Yang, Gyusuk
The Vocabulary Research Database: A Compilation of State-of-the-Art Academic Vocabulary Research
The Vocabulary Research Database (VRD) is a research tool comprised of a compilation of state-of-the art academic research in the field of vocabulary acquisition and pedagogy. The VRD has flexible search features that allow users to obtain higher granularity than is possible with other free databases and online search options currently available, making the results more relevant and manageable. These features include the ability to constrain results by date, author, publication, sub-topics, keywords, citation numbers, journal impact factors, and participant ages. It is anticipated that the ability to manipulate results, combined with relevant and current content, will provide language professionals with a valuable tool for accessing vocabulary-specific research, enabling them to better inform and improve their work.
Author: Young, Melissa
The Development of an ESP Vocabulary Study Guidefor the Utah State Driver Handbook
This thesis project details research conducted and the method employed to create a tool for acquiring the technical vocabulary from the Utah Driver Handbook. Technical terms were compiled into a vocabulary tool for English as a Second Language (ESL) learners. ESL programs within the state have noted the need for materials to help learners acquire this vocabulary. The tool will assist ESL learners preparing for the written driving exam by reinforcing the vocabulary through various iterations, including flash cards, simplified definitions, and an L1 gloss. Learners preparing for the exam will be able to study difficult vocabulary terms using the tool. The tool includes flashcards containing definitions and images, a list of terms with simplified learner definitions, and a list of terms in English with their Spanish equivalent. The tool was created with the intent of providing learners with the ability to revisit difficult terms in a number of ways (i.e. Quizlet, images, simplified definitions, and an L1 gloss). The intended outcome of this research is that the tool will be useful to ESL learners preparing for the written driving exam and be made applicable to learners in other settings.
Author: Brown, Kirsten Marie
A Dictionary of Unorthodox Oral Expressions for English Learners and Teachers
To learn a language successfully, one needs to incorporate terms which are used commonly by native speakers but cannot be found in dictionaries. Words like uh-huh, oops, ouch, and brrr, are some examples of these terms. These expressions, commonly categorized under such linguistic labels as interjections (Ameka, 1992), alternants (Poyatos, 2002), and response cries (Goffman,1981), are what Dr. Lynn Henrichsen (1993) and Rebecca Oyer (1999) termed Unorthodox Oral Expressions (UOEs). These utterances are considered unorthodox because many of them are not formal or standard English words. Because of that, “we do not consider them part of the productive system of English,” so English dictionaries and textbooks rarely include these words (Luthy, 1983, p.19). Also, they are used mostly in informal speech rather than in formal written English. Hence, non-native English learners usually don’t have the opportunity to learn these informal utterances in English classes (Chittaladakorn, 2011; Oyer, 1999).Though unorthodox, these expressions are important for English language learners (ELL) to learn so that they will be able to carry out more natural and native-like conversations and understand what these utterances mean when native speakers use them. Because UOEs are so under-taught and there are so few teaching UOEs, there is a great need for a UOE dictionary that includes not only pronunciation and meaning, but also the syntactic features and semantic and pragmatic functions of these expressions. This project includes the creation of an online UOE dictionary to fill that need in English language acquisition.
Author: Ting, Eewen
The Role of Pronunciation in Speaking Test Ratings
This study explores the weight of pronunciation in a speaking proficiency test at an English as a Second Language (ESL) Intensive English Program (IEP) in America. As an integral part of speaking, beliefs, practices, and research of pronunciation teaching have experienced shifts over the decades (Morley, 1991). Most studies concerning speaking have focused on intelligibility, comprehensibility, and accentedness of speaking, with attempting to address the role of pronunciation in oral communication. However, the degree to which pronunciation is weighed in determining speaking proficiency levels is unclear (Higgs & Clifford, 1982, Kang, 2013). In an effort to contribute to the understanding of this issue, the current study investigates the relationship between pronunciation and speaking proficiency ratings. The speaking proficiency ratings and pronunciation ratings in vowels, consonants, word stress, sentence stress, intonation, and rhythm of 226 speaking samples from English learners were collected at Brigham Young University’s (BYU) English Language Center (ELC). The study confirms that suprasegmentals explain more variance than segmentals in English proficiency, and among those suprasegmental features, only the ratings of sentence stress increase incrementally with the proficiency levels without overlapping among proficiency levels.
Author: Ma, Rui (Judy)
The Effect of Computer-Based Pronunciation Readings on ESL Learners’ Perception and Production of Prosodic Features in a Short-Term ESP Course
Recent studies on pronunciation teaching in ESL classrooms have found that the teaching of suprasegmentals, namely stress, pausing, and intonation, has a great effect on improving intelligibility (Derwing, Munro, & Wiebe, 1998; Kang, Rubin, & Pickering, 2010; Morley, 1991). The current project describes the development and implementation of computer-based pronunciation materials used for an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) program. The pronunciation program made use of cued pronunciation readings (CPRs) which used suprasegmentals and were developed for English as a second language (ESL) missionaries at the Provo, Utah, Missionary Training Center (MTC). Because there was no pronunciation program in place at the MTC, instructional materials that focused on prosodic features were greatly needed. Missionaries participated in the program anywhere from three to six weeks. Results from the implementation period revealed that missionaries made medium to large gains in their ability to perceive suprasegmentals after using the practice tasks and small-medium gains in their ability to produce suprasegmentals during this short time period. Recommendations for further development, implementation, and testing of similar materials are made for use with individuals in other ESP settings like these missionaries at the MTC.
Author: Jolley, Caitlin