APA REFERENCE STYLE: Unpublished Sources

Citation Style: Internet Docs Citation Style: Conference Papers

Unpublished refers to any information source that is not officially released by an individual, publishing house, or other company, and can include both paper and electronic sources. Some examples of unpublished sources may include manuscripts accepted for publication but still "in-press," data from an unpublished study, letters, manuscripts in preparation, memos, personal communications (including e-mails), and raw data.


Author(s) of paper or manuscript location varies according to paper or manuscript.
Year written location varies according to paper or manuscript.
Title location varies according to paper or manuscript
Publication process information location varies according to paper or manuscript.


      For unpublished works, put each author's last name, then a comma, then the first initial of the given name, then any additional initials. A period should follow each initial. Separate the last author from the second-to-last author with a comma and ampersand (&). Separate any additional authors by commas.

One authorWringley, B. B.
Two authorsMario, L. G., & Luigi, M. G.
Three authorsSmith, J. S., Samson, M. S., & Jackson, L. J.
Institutional authorThe Foundation for Ancient Pig Latin Research

      Even though the work has not been published, the year it was written should be included in the citation to establish the timeliness of the data presented therein. If the paper has been revised (as can happen many times if the paper is being prepared for publication), use the year of the draft the pertinent information is being taken from.

Standard form(1993).


      Give the full title of the paper or manuscript, including the subtitle if one is given. Capitalize only the first word of the title, and the first word of any subtitle; also capitalize any proper names in the title. Separate title and subtitle with a colon (:). The title should be italicized, except in the case of raw data taken from an unpublished study, where the topic of the study is then put in brackets to show that it is a description of the content and not an actual title (see examples below). End the title with a period (.).

Standard formThe acquisition of suprasegmental skills in Pig Latin as a second language.
Title and subtitlePhonemes in Pig Latin: A look at the production and perception of difficult sounds.

      Because the manuscript or paper may be in several different steps of the publication process, it is important to let readers know where the source is currently. Do not italicize this part of the citation. End with a period. If a university is cited, separate the publication process information and the name of the university with a comma (,). Include the city, state, and country (if outside the United States) of the university unless such information is included in the name of the university. See the examples below for more information.

Unpublished Manuscript
not submitted for publication

Manuscript Title. Unpublished manuscript.
Unpublished Manuscript
with a university cited

Manuscript Title. Unpublished manuscript, Southern Kentucky University, Frankfurt, KY.
Unpublished Manuscript
submitted for publication
Manuscript Title. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Note: if the manuscript or paper has been accepted for publication, do not use a year. Instead, use the term "in-press." Give the title of the Journal the paper was submitted, as you would in citing a journal article. Do not gaive the page numbers as they are not available until publication. If the manuscript has been submitted, but not yet accepted for publication, do not give the name of the journal or publisher the manuscript was submitted to.

Unpublished raw data
from a study or untitled work
[Study Topic]. Unpublished raw data.


      Author, A. A. (1996). Title of paper or manuscript. Unpublished manuscript.

      Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1996). Title of paper: Subtitle of paper. Manuscript sumbitted for publication.

      Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1996). [Topic of study or untitle work]. Unpublished raw data.


Unpublished Example 1

Citation:      Spud, I. H. (1999). Constrastive analysis: A comparison of Pig Latin and English. Unpublished manuscript.

Unpublished Example 2

Citation:      Nala, A. (1998). Teaching vocabulary: Evidence from research in Pig Latin Unpublished manuscript, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.

Unpublished Example 3

Citation:      Clinton, W. & Carter, J. (1987). [The relationship between pronunciation and perception in L2 learners of Pig Latin]. Unpublished raw data.

Unpublished Example 4

Citation:      Roosevelt, F. (1997). Childhood acquisition of Pig Latin by native speakers of English. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Citation Style: Internet Docs Citation Style: Conference Papers

Table of Contents
Citation Style: Books
List of Citation Formats
Citation Style: Chapters
Citation Practice 1
Kinds of Sources
Citation Style: ERIC Docs
Citation Practice 2
Basic Formatting
Citation Style: Internet Docs
Further Information
Citation Style: Unpublished Sources
Citation Style: Conference Papers