Indo-European Roots

*ar-. To fit together. Latin ars, art, skill, craft: ART, ARTIST. Latin ordo, order (originally a row of threads in a loom): ORDAIN, ORDER, COORDINATION. Latin ordiri, to begin to weave: EXORDIUM, PRIMORDIAL. Latin ornare, to adorn: ORNAMENT. Latin reri, to consider, confirm, ratify: RATIO, REASON. Old English raedan, to advise: READ, REDE.

*arg-. To shine; white; silver. Latin arguere, to make clear, demonstrate: ARGUE.


*deru. To be firm, steadfast, solid. Old English treow: TREE. Old English treow, pledge: TRUCE. Old English treowe, firm, true: TRUE. Old English treowth, faith, loyalty, truth: TROTH, TRUTH, BETROTH. Old Norse traust, confidence, firmness: TRUST. Latin durus, hard: DURESS, ENDURE.

*gerbh-. To scratch. Old English ceorfan, to cut: CARVE. Greek graphein, to scratch, draw, write (also gramma and gramme): -GRAM, -GRAPH, GRAMMAR, PARAGRAPH.

*ghredh-. To walk, go. Latin gradi, to walk, go: CONGRESS, DIGRESS, PROGRESS, REGRESS, TRANSGRESS. Latin gradus, step, stage, degree, rank: GRADE, DEGREE, DEGRADE.

*gno-. To know. Old English cnawan, to know: KNOW. Old English cunnan, to know, to know how to, be able to: CAN1, CUNNING. Latin cognoscere, to get to know, get acquainted with: NOTICE, COGNITION, RECOGNIZE. Latin ignorare, not to know, to disregard: IGNORANCE, IGNORE. Latin nobilis, knowable, known, famous, noble: NOBLE. Latin narrare, to tell, relate: NARRATE.

*kers-2. To run. Latin currere, to run: CORRIDOR, COURSE, CURSIVE, CURSOR; DISCOURSE, RECUR. Latin carrus, a two-wheeled wagon, cart: CAR, CAREER, CHARGE, CHARIOT.

*teks-. To weave; also to fabricate, to make wicker or wattle fabric for house walls. Latin texere, to weave, fabricate: TEXT, TISSUE; CONTEXT. Latin subtilis, thin, fine, precise, sublte (thread passing under the warp): SUBTLE. Greek tekton, carpenter, builder: TECTONIC, ARCHITECT. Greek tekhne, art, craft, skill: TECHNICAL, TECHNOLOGY.

*wer-6. To speak. Old English word, word: WORD. Latin verbum, word: VERB; ADVERB. Greek eirein, to say, speak: IRONY. Greek rhetor, public speaker: RHETOR.

The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 1985.

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1998-1999 © Dr. Cynthia L. Hallen
Department of Linguistics
Brigham Young University
Last Updated: Monday, September 6, 1999